1. Branch diameter of a year 4-8 mm
2. Shoot of a robust and lilificate year with 2-3 buds of a variety and a well-defined clonal selection
3. Length of the graft engaged 2-5 mm
4. A homogeneous and perfectly welded omega grafting point
5. Length of the tealea grafts 28-33 cm
6. Sowing a rootstock of a variety and well-defined and carefully selected clonal selection
7. Radical apparatus length 13 – 18 cm
8. Well distributed root system at the base of the cutting tales and well developed
DECEMBER JANUARY FEBRUARY
COLLECTION OF ROOTSTOCKS AND GEMS
- Rootstocks: cutting of shoots, harvesting in bundles and storage awaiting cutting.
- Marze: pruning of the vines, collection in bundles of the material
CUTTING OF ROOTSTOCKS AND GEMS
- Rootstocks: cleaning of the branches (manual or mechanical), cutting of the pieces in different sizes, blending, bathing in water and fungicidal solution, conservation fridge.
- Marze: cutting of the buds, bathing of the gems in water and fungicidal solution, cold storage.
Bench-top grafting with machine (omega grafting), paraffinning, preparation of chests (layers of cuttings and sawdust), wetting, cold storage
FORCING IN THE GREENHOUSE
- The boxes are transported in the greenhouse for forcing, at a temperature of 28 ° C at the point of grafting and a relative humidity of 95%, depending on the type of rootstock changes the time that the grafts remain in the greenhouse.
- Once removed from the boxes, the grafts are cleaned and refinished
PLANTING OF NURSERY
- Spreading hoses for irrigation and plastic film
- Transport in the field and manual system (single row every 6.5 cm)
APRIL MAY JUNE
Slices are put into a peat bread, irrigated and treated, passed several times to the selection and changed the peat bread are packaged and delivered to the customer.
- Herbicides, anticryptogamics and insecticides.
WEED OUT AND PACKAGING
- Rooting vines from the ground with mechanical grubber
- Collection in bundles and transport
Sorting and packaging
- Mechanical test for the sealing of the callus and visual for the compliance of the root system
- Pruning with two buds
- Collected in bunches of 25 and then 100 plants are cartellinate
- Delivery in a cooperative
In the cooperative the plants are stored and cold-stored already boxed or in a wet cell (99% humidity and 2 ° C).
From here they are then sent to customers.
Preparation of rootstocks and slips
The branches and rootstock are collected in winter and placed in environments that ensure good conservation until processing.
The rootstocks are then healed by the females, cut into 35-40 cm pieces keeping a knot in the basal part, and collected in bundles of 100-200 or 600 pieces with their descriptive label indicating the variety and the clone. The beams are then treated with a fungicide and stored in cold storage at a temperature of 1-2 ° C and at a humidity of 90-100%.
The branches that provide the grafting gems are further selected by eliminating those damaged and those not well-lignified. They are then cut maintaining a gem for rearing and keeping only those with a diameter between 6 and 14 mm. Immediately after the cut they are soaked in water and placed in bags with their descriptive label. The sacks, containing the buds, come, up to the moment of the grafting, stored in the cold store in such a way as to guarantee maximum vitality.
The cultivation of rootstocks and grafting buds
Mothers rootstock plants, made with “basic” material, are grown in dry and healthy environments, perfect for producing and guaranteeing wood with high health characteristics. In Northern Italy, cultivation on supports is practically necessary to make wood mature and produce more wood capable of amortising the high cost of planting and management.
In the scaffolding systems, various green pruning operations are carried out to improve both quality and quantity production.
The cultivation of grafting gems occurs mainly in Trentino, adopting both dual-purpose plants, grapes and gems, and highly specialized plants created for the exclusive production of grafting buds. All the plants from which the gems are taken are subjected to rigorous and repeated checks, both varietal and sanitary. The plants are subjected to treatments against the main diseases of the vine and removed from those that show symptoms of diseases due to viruses.
Particular attention is paid to the golden flavescence and its carrier, the Scafoideus titanus.
The grafts-cutting are then paraffined to protect the joining area of the two bionts, then stratified into boxes with sawdust and finally subjected to forcing. Usually the paraffin used on this occasion is red. The forcing consists in keeping the boxes with the grafts-cutting in greenhouses or premises at controlled temperature and humidity. These conditions favor the development of a cicatrization callus at the grafting point and the radical drafts at the base of the cutting.
After forcing, which lasts from 15 to 25 days, follows a period of greening and acclimatization that strengthens the graft-cutting.
It is carried out a test for the formation of the callus and at the same time the residues of sawdust on the cuttings grafted with the use of special brushes are eliminated. The second paraffin, usually brown, is used to prevent dehydration of the callus at the grafting point once the grafting of the graft is planted. For the cultivation of rooted cuttings, the choice of the land and the area where it is located is very important. Soils must be loose, fresh and fertile, and must be well leveled in such a way that there are no areas of water stagnation. The nursery can happen to itself at most for a second year. The cuttings can be planted with a mechanical transplanting machine but currently, with the adoption of mulch, they are planted manually using special forklifts.
The nursery management is a complex operation that requires professionalism and experience. Until a few decades ago, the main agronomic operations were almost exclusively done by hand, while currently specialized machines are used for this type of crop.
The nursery management provides pre-implantation fertilizations, any post-implant nutrient inputs even by foliar, several irrigations and numerous phytosanitary treatments.
These in particular are oriented towards the defense from the downy mildew (about a weekly treatment) and, to a lesser extent, from oidium and botrytis. Acaricidal and insecticide treatments are then carried out, in particular against Scafoideus titanus, a golden flavescence vector. The nursery, moreover, is carefully checked, row by row, several times during the season, to check varietal correspondence and possible diseases.
To ensure that the vegetation is an upright habit and to prevent it from settling on the ground and to strengthen the growth of the shoots, it is carried out between three and four cuttings.